F.A.Q. - ICAO's CORSIA
1. What is a market-based measure?
A market-based measure (MBM) is a policy tool that is designed to achieve environmental goals at a lower cost and in a more flexible manner than traditional regulatory measures.Read more
2. What are the guiding principles for the design and implementation of MBMs?
The ICAO 38th Resolution lists 16 guiding principles for the design and implementation of market-based measures (MBMs) for international aviationRead more
3. What are the most promising MBM options?
There are three Global MBM options currently on the table: Global mandatory offsetting, Global mandatory offsetting with revenue generation, and Global emissions trainingRead more
4. Why were international aviation emissions not included in the Paris Agreement at COP 21?
Emissions from domestic aviation are addressed under the UNFCCC, while emissions from international aviation are reported separately by ICAO.Read more
5. Which are the Least Developed Countries (LDCs)?
LDCs are low-income countries confronting severe structural impediments to sustainable development. There are currently 48 countries designated by the United Nations as least developed countries (LDCs).Read more
6. Which are the Small Island Developing States?
Small Island Developing States (SIDS) were recognized as a distinct group of developing countries facing specific social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities. There is currently 38 UN Member States and 20 non-UN Members on the list.Read more
7. Which are the Landlocked Developing Countries?
Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) are developing countries that are landlocked, e.g. they do not have direct access to the sea. Currently, 31 countries belong to the Group of landlocked developing countries: 15 are located in Africa, 12 in Asia, 2 in Latin America and 2 in Central and Eastern Europe.Read more
8. Which States are participating in CORSIA?
The Pilot Phase and the First Phase are not mandatory, however as of now there are 69 States who intend to participate. The Second Phase, starting in 2027, will be mandatory for non-exempted States. According to 2014 RTKs, there woud be 35 States participating plus 38 States volunteering in previous phases.Read more
9. What was the request from the 2013 ICAO Assembly on a global MBM scheme?
At the 38th ICAO General Assembly, the ICAO decided to develop a global MBM scheme for international aviation. The ICAO Council is was expected to work on the design of a global MBM that appropriately addresses the key design elements listed in the Annex of the ICAO Resolution and the mechanisms for the implementation of the scheme from 2020.Read more
10. Which aircraft operators will have to offset their emissions?
ICAO will determine list of aircraft operators every year based on a given year's international operations of each aircraft operator. Mandatory carbon offsetting applies for all operators on the list regardless of their State of registry.Read more
11. Can the inclusion of a flight change?
Yes, it can. Inclusion of a route in the scope of CORSIA can change over the time depending on which States participate in the scheme in a given year.Read more
12. Will an aircraft operator have to offset emissions if his own emissions did not grow?
Yes. The formula to calculate offsetting requirements uses a dynamic approach in offset distribution. At the beginning of the scheme all operators will start with 100% sectoral rate by the end of the scheme the aircraft operators will be required to calculate their offsetting requirements with at least 70% of individual rate.Read more
13. How is the sectoral rate calculated?
The sectoral rate or sector's growth factor is calculated for a given year by a formula published in the ICAO 2016 Resolution.Read more
14. How is the individual rate calculated?
The individual rate or aircraft operator's growth factor is calculated for a given year by a formula published in the ICAO 2016 Resolution.Read more
15. How is the offsetting requirement calculated?
The offsetting requirement for each aircraft operator is calculated for a given year by a formula published in the ICAO 2016 Resolution.Read more
16. How will the CORSIA apply to aircraft operators that will initiate activities after the entry into force of the scheme (so called “new entrant”)?
CORSIA applies to new entrants as well. They will start participating in the scheme after three years from commencing aviation activities or in the year in which their annual emissions exceed 0.1 % of total emissions in 2020, whichever comes first.Read more
17. How is the baseline calculated and can it change?
The baseline is an average of total emissions covered by CORSIA between 2019 and 2020. This baseline will be recalculated every year.Read more
18. What do we know about CORSIA’s MRV?
Monitoring, reporting and verification system has not yet been published by the ICAO. ICAO should agree MRV as SARPs and those should be implemented by States from 1 January 2019.Read more
19. Which Emissions Unit Criteria are agreed for CORSIA?
EUC are not available yet. ICAO and CAEP will develop SARPs and guidance with implementation no later than 2018. The relevant developments in the UNFCCC and Article 6 of the Paris Agreement should be taken into account.Read more
20. What is the difference between the Pilot phase and the First phase?
Both phases are voluntary. In the Pilot phase participating States can choose whether the aircraft operators will offset emissions from a given year or from the year 2020.Read more
21. When will CORSIA be implemented?
First year of compliance is 2021. Until then SARPs for MRV, EUC and Registries need to be developed by ICAO with the technical contribution of CAEP and also implemented by the States.Read more
22. What is the schedule of CORSIA?
CORSIA will be in force from 2021 till 2035. The scheme is divided into 3 phases and compliance cycle is set to 3 years. Every three years starting in 2022, ICAO will conduct a review of the scheme.Read more