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Which are the Landlocked Developing Countries?

Lack of territorial access to the sea, remoteness and isolation from world markets and high transit costs continue to impose serious constraints on the overall socio-economic development of landlocked developing countries. Their sea borne trade unavoidably depends on transit through other countries. Additional border crossings and long distance from the market substantially increase the total expenses for the transport services.

The economic performance of landlocked developing countries reflects the direct and indirect impact of geographical situation on key-economic variables. Landlocked developing countries are generally among the poorest of the developing countries, with the weakest growth rates, and are typically heavily dependent on a very limited number of commodities for their export earnings. Moreover, of 31 landlocked developing countries 16 are classified as least developed.

The remoteness from major world markets is the principal reason why many landlocked developing countries have not been very successful in mitigating consequences caused by their geographical handicap as compared to landlocked countries in Europe. Landlocked developed countries of Europe are surrounded by major developed markets and their seaborne trade accounts for a relatively small part of their external trade. Their export is mainly high value added products and their distance from the seaport is relatively short.

List of Landlocked Developing Countries:
 
Afghanistan Kazakhstan Paraguay
Armenia Kyrgyzstan Rwanda
Azerbaijan Lao People's Democratic Republic Swaziland
Bhutan Lesotho Tajikistan
Bolivia Macedonia  Turkmenistan
Botswana Malawi Uganda
Burkina Faso Mali Uzbekistan
Burundi Moldova Zambia
Central African Republic Mongolia Zimbabwe
Chad Nepal  
Ethiopia Niger  

Source: UN-OHRLLS
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