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State Action Plans Design

Verifavia provides technical assistance to States in the design, update and implementation of State Action Plans or Action Plans on Emissions Reduction (APER).



ICAO reported at the 38th Assembly that 70 Member States, representing approximately 80% of global international air traffic, had prepared and submitted their APER to ICAO. Since ICAO has 190 Members, it means that around 120 Member States had not yet submitted their APER at the time of the Assembly.

Verifavia believes that there is an opportunity to provide technical support to ICAO Member States in the design, update and implementation of APERs.


Step 1 - Preparatory activities

The APER technical support team will engage in constructive discussions with all relevant stakeholders of the ICAO Member State that wish to prepare or update its APER:
  • Ministry of Environment or Environment agency
  • Civil Aviation Authority
  • Main airlines
  • Main airports
  • ATC organization
Preparatory activities will include:
  • Meeting with stakeholders involved with civil aviation matters in the country
  • Administrative and organizational arrangements
  • Identification of national conditions
Objectives of the preparatory activities are:
  • Secure the commitment of all stakeholders
  • Collect the expertise and know-how of all stakeholders
  • Depending on national conditions, ensure that mitigation activities are realistic in terms of their expected effectiveness and ease of implementation

Step 2 - Estimation of historical CO2 emissions from international aviation

The objective is to determine the historical levels of CO2 emissions from international aviation. Reported CO2 data allows ICAO to assess the overall emissions trends and track progress towards the achievement of the global aspirational goals of ICAO. 

The team will use all relevant models and methodologies as well as the ICAO guidance material to assist the country in the determination of the historical levels of CO2 emissions.

Historical emissions shall be determined for international and domestic flights separately. Depending on the availability of fuel consumption data, various methodologies will be tested including the two methodologies proposed by ICAO:
  1. Aggregated methodology: based on the use of aggregate fuel consumption data collected by States and reported to ICAO through the ICAO Fuel Form
  2. Disaggregated methodology: based on the availability of detailed information for individual flight stages

Step 3 - Identification of actions to mitigate CO2 emissions

Potential mitigation opportunities will be identified and assessed considering the basket of measures that have been developed by ICAO.

For each identified mitigation opportunity, the team will :
  • Perform a cost-benefit / cost-effectiveness analysis
  • Undertake a risk assessment analysis
  • Identify barriers to implementation (financial, human or technological)
  • Prioritize each opportunity based on implementation timeframe, feasibility and emissions reduction potential
The mitigation opportunities can be categorized as follows:
  • Aircraft-related technology development
  • Alternative fuels
  • Improved air traffic management and infrastructure use
  • More efficient operations
  • Economic / market-based measures
  • Regulatory measures / other

Step 4 - Draft report

The team will prepare a draft report which will be discussed in detail with the relevant stakeholders. 

The preparation of an APER shall be viewed as an iterative process with the objective of continuous improvement. 

The team will follow the Guidance Document published by ICAO but will also base its work on industry best practices. The team will use the template provided by ICAO which shall be adapted to reflect any improvement opportunity.


> Go to our State Action Plans Implementation service section

Source: ICAO