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Which are the Landlocked Developing Countries?

Lack of territorial access to the sea, remoteness and isolation from world markets and high transit costs continue to impose serious constraints on the overall socio-economic development of landlocked developing countries. Their sea-borne trade unavoidably depends on transit through other countries. Additional border crossings and long distances from the market substantially increase the total expenses for transport services.

The economic performance of landlocked developing countries reflects the direct and indirect impact of the geographical situation on key-economic variables. Landlocked developing countries are generally among the poorest of the developing countries, with the weakest growth rates, and are typically heavily dependent on a very limited number of commodities for their export earnings. Moreover, of the 32 landlocked developing countries, 17 are classified as least developed.

The remoteness from major world markets is the principal reason why many landlocked developing countries have not been very successful in mitigating consequences caused by their geographical handicap as compared to landlocked countries in Europe. Landlocked developed countries of Europe are surrounded by major developed markets and their seaborne trade accounts for a relatively small part of their external trade. Their export is mainly high-value-added products and their distance from the seaport is relatively short.

List of Landlocked Developing Countries:
1. Afghanistan 12. Ethiopia 23. Paraguay
2. Armenia 13. Kazakhstan 24. Republic of Moldova
3. Azerbaijan 14. Kyrgyzstan 25. Rwanda
4. Bhutan 15. Lao People’s Democratic Republic 26. South Sudan
5. Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 16. Lesotho 27. Tajikistan
6. Botswana 17. Macedonia 28. Turkmenistan
7. Burkina Faso 18. Malawi 29. Uganda
8. Burundi 19. Mali 30. Uzbekistan
9. Central African Republic 20. Mongolia 31. Zambia
10. Chad 21. Nepal 32. Zimbabwe
11. Eswatini 22. Niger  

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